Osprey Fortress 31 : Rome's Northern Frontier 70-235 AD : Beyond Hadrian's Wall
The Romans first advanced into Scotland when Cn. Iulius Agricola was provincial governor of Britain (AD 77-84). Agricola appears to have established a 'frontier' along the Gask Ridge and consolidated the Forth-Clyde isthmus before withdrawing south. In AD 138, Antoninus Pius ordered the construction of the Antonine Wall, completed in AD 143, but it would mark the frontier for little more than 20 years. Following Caledonian incursions from the north in AD 197, the Emperor Septimius Severus arrived to restore order, briefly reoccupying sections of the Antonine Wall, before abandoning it permanently. This book examines the distinct periods of conquest and the fortifications along Rome's northern frontier, explaining the archaeological remains and placing them in historical context. Text by Nic Fields with illustrations by Alina Illustrazioni.
- Agricola's Northern Campaigns
- The Gask Ridge
- The Antonine Conquest and Consolidation
- The Antonine Wall
- The Sites Today