Militaryfocus.com on osprey books. Following the Soviet invasion in 1979 of Afghanistan, the Mujahideen developed and reinforced many natural cave systems to use as supply bases and defensive positions.

Osprey Fortress 26 : Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 : Mountain Strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda

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Osprey Fortress 26 : Afghanistan Cave Complexes 1979-2004 : Mountain Strongholds of the Mujahideen, Taliban & Al Qaeda

Following the Soviet invasion in 1979 of Afghanistan, the Mujahideen developed and reinforced many natural cave systems to use as supply bases and defensive positions. The Taliban and Al Qaeda further developed these positions throughout the 1990s. Following the events of September 11, 2001, these cave systems have once more come to prominence and sites such as Tora Bora ('Black Dust,' a series of individual caves) and Zhawar Kili (a large complex in eastern Afghanistan) have featured in news headlines around the world. This book provides a detailed analysis and visual documentation of these caves and underground systems. It also discusses the Coalition's tactical approach to dislodging the enemy from these fortified positions. Text by Mir Bahmanyar with illustrations by Ian Palmer.

    Contents
  • Introduction
  • Chronology
  • Design and Development
  • Tour of the Sites
  • The Principles of Defense
  • The Living Sites
  • Operational History
  • Aftermath
  • The Sites Today
  • Bibliography and Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • Index

 

Osprey Fortress


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